The talks were held in secret under the aegis of Norway and the agreement was signed on September 13, 1993 on the White House lawn, as reported by President Bill Clinton. PLO leader Jasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzchak Rabin shook hands. After the 1967 war, there were several peace plans, but it was only after Yom Kippur or the October 1973 war that nothing happened. A new sense of peace ensued, as demonstrated by a historic visit by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem in November 1977. Fighting between Jews and Arabs in Palestine dates back to the 1920s, when both groups claimed British-controlled territory. The Jews were Zionists, the youngest emigrants from Europe and Russia, who came to the former homeland of the Jews to establish a Jewish nation-state. Indigenous Arabs (they have not yet called themselves Palestinians) have tried to contain Jewish immigration and establish a secular Palestinian state. The first was called A Framework for Peace in the Middle East. It defined the principles of peace, which were extended to Resolution 242, defined a way to solve the so-called “Palestinian problem”, agreed to a treaty between Egypt and Israel, and called for new agreements between Israel and its neighbours.
The weakness of the first agreement was the section on the Palestinians. The plan aimed to create an “autonomous authority” in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which led to possible “final status” talks, but the Palestinians did not participate in the agreement. Following the conflict between the two main Palestinian parties, Fatah and Hamas, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip and fragmented the Palestinian Authority into two political units, each claiming to be the true representative of the Palestinian people. Fatah controlled the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and Hamas ruled Gaza. Hostilities between Gaza and Israel have intensified. [Citation required] Egypt negotiated the six-month ceasefire between Israel and Hamas in 2008 and began on 19 June 2008 and lasted until 19 December 2008.  The collapse of the ceasefire led to the Gaza war on 27 December 2008. On 7 July, the foreign ministers of Egypt, France, Germany and Jordan issued a statement declaring that “any annexation of the Palestinian territories occupied in 1967 would constitute a violation of international law” and “would have serious consequences for the security and stability of the region and would constitute a major obstacle to comprehensive and equitable peace efforts”.