“Abandoning the Paris agreement is cruel for future generations,” said Andrew Steer, president and CEO of the World Resources Institute, about the Trump administration`s decision to formally withdraw the United States from the agreement. The U.S. will lose much stronger jobs and economy that will bring a low-carbon future, Steer said in a statement. The fact that the major economies are not achieving their objectives will revive ancestral arguments about who plays a fair role and who is obliged to do more. And it will cast a shadow over the presentation of new commitments in the 2020s. What will be important if countries increase their targets, if they do not even meet their current targets? Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  A study published in 2018 shows a threshold where temperatures could reach 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be “4-5 degrees Celsius”) compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to self-amplifying feedbacks in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris climate agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: “We find that in its history, the Earth has never had a nearly stable state, warmer than that of pre-industrial, and suggests that there is a significant risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want to continue warming, even if we stop emissions.
This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.  This is what international climate negotiators, who have worked for decades through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have sought to ensure that countries around the world join ambitious commitments to reduce emissions. A preliminary inventory-impact study was published in Nature Communications in April 2020. Based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current strategies by 2030 leaves an average emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq, with optimal means to achieve targets well below 2 degrees Celsius and 1.5 degrees Celsius. If national contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one-third. The countries assessed did not achieve their promised contributions with implemented measures (implementation deficit) or experienced a gap in ambition with optimal paths to well below 2oC. The study showed that all countries should accelerate the implementation of renewable technology strategies, while improving efficiency in emerging and fossil fuel-dependent countries is particularly important.  Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.
 Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  INDIA has addressed the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.